Fundamental study of color combinations by using deuteranope simulation filter for controlling the handicap of color vision diversity in video games

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November 05, 21

スライド概要

Color video games are often disadvantageous for people with color blindness. Therefore, the game creator often supports them by displaying a color scheme suitable for a color vision type to solve this problem. However, it is difficult to say that the color scheme solves the handicap. Therefore, we aim to develop a mechanism that can control the advantages and disadvantages of people with color vision diversity and normal color vision by combining suitable colors. To examine color combinations that are difficult for people with normal color vision to discriminate and easy for people with color vision diversity we carried out an experiment using a Deuteranope-simulation filter. The results proved that there are color combinations that people with color vision diversity can easily discriminate. This means that the advantages of color vision and disadvantages of color vision diversity can be controlled appropriately by using color combinations.

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Nakamura Laboratory (Meiji University)

@nkmr-lab

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明治大学 総合数理学部 先端メディアサイエンス学科 中村聡史研究室

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Fundamental Study of Color Combinations by Using Deuteranope-Simulation Filter for Controlling the Handicap of Color Vision Diversity in Video Games Yuka Fujiwara (Meiji University) Satoshi Nakamura (Meiji University)

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How does it look?

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How does it look?

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How does it look?

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Background ・The popularity of online games called e-sports has been increasing due to the spread of the Internet. ・COVID-19 has increased the demand for online games as a form of entertainment that can be played at home. This has led to the popularity of online games.

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Background There are many game players around the world.

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Background Poor hearing. Poor eyesight. There are players with handicaps.

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Background ・This is how many people enjoy online games. ・However, there are some people who have handicaps. ・These people may be at a disadvantage in other ways than their gaming skills. They are affected in winning or losing the game.

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Background ・There are various handicaps. ・This study will focus on people with color vision diversity.

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Color Vision Diversity General Protanope Deuteranope Tritanope

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Color Vision Diversity General Color Vision Protanope Color vision diversity have difficulty judging gender markings by color.

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Color Vision Diversity

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Color Vision Diversity c Yellow and Green c Yellow Only

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Color Vision Support ・Color vision diversity have difficulty in judging colors in games. ・The slower they judge colors, the harder it is to win the game. ・Game producers have implemented color vision support to counter this problem.

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Color Vision Support Ordinary Protanope

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Purpose Our goal is to fill the gap by using the proposed method.

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Purpose ・It is necessary to know what colors are difficult for color vision diversity to distinguish. ・We also thought that we could eliminate the handicap by using colors that can be distinguished by both the general and color vision diversity. We don’t know what colors are easy to distinguish, and there is no index to use as a guide.

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Purpose We investigated colors as an indicator to control the advantage and disadvantage of color vision. ・We focused on Deuteranope, which accounts for a large percentage of color vision diversity. ・The subject of the experiment was a general, and the colors seen by the Deuteranope were simulated and displayed.

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Deuteranope Simulation Filter Deuteranope Protanope ・There are many different types of color vision diversity. ・Protanope and Deuteranope see similar colors. ・The colors are different, like pink. ・It is necessary to conduct experiments according to color vision types.

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Deuteranope Simulation Filter ・A large number of experimental collaborators are required to conduct the experiment. ・We were not able to gather enough people with color vision diversity. We limited the number of collaborators to general people.

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Deuteranope Simulation Filter ・In order to conduct the experiment on the general, it is necessary to show them the colors that Deuteranope sees. ・We decided to apply a Deuteranope simulated filter to the colors seen by the general. ・This made it possible to conduct experiments on general.

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Deuteranope Simulation Filter Colors as seen by the General Colors as seen by the Deuteranope

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Deuteranope Simulation Filter Unfilter Condition Filter Condition

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Experiment Overview ・The goal of this research is to eliminate the color handicap in gameplay. ・In order to win a game, you need to act faster than your opponent. It is important to make decisions more accurately and quickly than your opponent.

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Experiment Overview

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Experiment Overview Basic Color Target Color

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Experiment Overview We ask the participants to select the target color accurately and quickly.

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Experiment Overview

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Experiment Overview ・Set up to 28 different color combinations. ・There are 5 male and 8 female collaborators in the experiment. ・The experimental collaborators were ordinary people who had been tested for color vision check beforehand.

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Selection of color combinations The greater the difference in brightness between the text color and the background color on the web, the greater the visibility of the text. Yamanaka et al (2009) I hypothesized that the color combination with a large difference in brightness would be the one that color vision diversity could judge accurately and quickly.

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Experimental Result Correct Answer Rate All 0.748 Average Response Time (sec) 6.272 Filtered 0.700 7.289 Unfiltered 0.796 5.255 ※There was one collaborator who was an outlier (mean±2SD), and that person was excluded.

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Experimental Result pair-1 pair-2 pair-3 pair-4 pair-5 pair-6 pair-7 pair-8 pair-9 Correct Answer Unfiltered Rate Filtered 0.99 0.98 0.74 0.72 0.88 0.88 0.15 0.38 0.98 0.98 1.00 0.96 0.83 0.82 0.95 1.00 0.80 0.81 0.95 0.94 0.68 0.62 0.36 0.25 0.98 0.95 0.94 0.83 Unfiltered Average Response Time Filtered 1.35 1.42 6.50 5.99 2.97 2.62 10.14 14.75 2.29 1.82 1.82 2.36 3.30 3.56 1.59 1.68 5.09 7.47 2.13 1.85 7.20 6.61 12.26 13.20 1.71 2.21 2.90 3.83 pair-15 pair-16 Correct Answer Unfiltered Rate Filtered 0.93 0.97 0.93 0.97 0.91 0.84 0.50 0.33 0.59 0.29 0.97 0.98 0.97 0.83 0.97 0.99 0.02 0.05 0.92 0.79 0.56 0.53 0.37 0.47 0.71 0.75 0.84 0.60 Unfiltered Average Response Time Filtered 1.94 1.76 2.84 2.96 2.86 4.78 8.99 11.84 7.74 10.17 2.32 1.93 2.80 4.13 2.01 1.54 33.72 7.62 2.91 4.57 9.53 9.49 9.77 8.08 7.27 5.03 5.33 7.36 Unfiltered pair-10 pair-11 pair-12 pair-13 pair-14 Target Basic filtered Target Basic Unfiltered pair-17 pair-18 pair-19 pair-20 pair-21 pair-22 pair-23 pair-24 pair-25 pair-26 pair-27 pair-28 Target Basic filtered Target Basic

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Experimental Result pair-1 pair-2 pair-3 Correct Answer Unfiltered Rate Filtered 0.99 0.98 0.74 0.95 1.00 Unfiltered Average Response Time Filtered 1.35 1.42 0.72 condition 0.88 0.88 is0.15 0.38 Filtered the color 0.80 0.81 0.95 0.94 0.68 0.62 as seen by Deuteranope. 6.50 5.99 2.97 2.62 10.14 14.75 1.59 1.68 5.09 pair-15 pair-16 Correct Answer Unfiltered Rate Filtered 0.93 0.97 0.93 0.97 0.91 0.84 0.50 0.33 0.59 0.29 0.97 0.98 0.97 0.83 0.97 0.99 0.02 0.05 0.92 0.79 0.56 0.53 0.37 0.47 0.71 0.75 0.84 0.60 Unfiltered Average Response Time Filtered 1.94 1.76 2.84 2.96 2.86 4.78 8.99 11.84 7.74 10.17 2.32 1.93 2.80 4.13 2.01 1.54 33.72 7.62 2.91 4.57 9.53 9.49 9.77 8.08 7.27 5.03 5.33 7.36 Unfiltered Target Basic filtered pair-4 pair-5 pair-6 pair-7 pair-8 pair-9 Unfiltered condition is the color as seen by the general. pair-10 pair-11 pair-12 pair-13 pair-14 Target Basic Unfiltered 7.47 2.13 1.85 7.20 6.61 0.98 0.98 1.00 0.96 0.83 0.82 0.36 0.25 0.98 0.95 0.94 0.83 2.29 1.82 1.82 2.36 3.30 3.56 12.26 13.20 1.71 2.21 2.90 3.83 pair-17 pair-18 pair-19 pair-20 pair-21 pair-22 pair-23 pair-24 pair-25 pair-26 pair-27 pair-28 Target Basic filtered Target Basic

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Experimental Result pair-1 Unfiltered pair-2 Target pair-3 pair-4 pair-5 pair-6 pair-7 pair-8 pair-9 Target is only one different color. pair-10 pair-11 pair-12 pair-13 pair-14 Basic filtered Target Basic is a color other than Target Color. Basic Correct Answer Unfiltered Rate Filtered 0.99 0.98 0.74 0.72 0.88 0.88 0.15 0.38 0.98 0.98 1.00 0.96 0.83 0.82 0.95 1.00 0.80 0.81 0.95 0.94 0.68 0.62 0.36 0.25 0.98 0.95 0.94 0.83 Unfiltered Average Response Time Filtered 1.35 1.42 6.50 5.99 2.97 2.62 10.14 14.75 2.29 1.82 1.82 2.36 3.30 3.56 1.59 1.68 5.09 7.47 2.13 1.85 7.20 6.61 12.26 13.20 1.71 2.21 2.90 3.83 pair-15 pair-16 Correct Answer Unfiltered Rate Filtered 0.93 0.97 0.93 0.97 0.91 0.84 0.50 0.33 0.59 0.29 0.97 0.98 0.97 0.83 0.97 0.99 0.02 0.05 0.92 0.79 0.56 0.53 0.37 0.47 0.71 0.75 0.84 0.60 Unfiltered Average Response Time Filtered 1.94 1.76 2.84 2.96 2.86 4.78 8.99 11.84 7.74 10.17 2.32 1.93 2.80 4.13 2.01 1.54 33.72 7.62 2.91 4.57 9.53 9.49 9.77 8.08 7.27 5.03 5.33 7.36 Unfiltered pair-17 pair-18 pair-19 pair-20 pair-21 pair-22 pair-23 pair-24 pair-25 pair-26 pair-27 pair-28 Target Basic filtered Target Basic

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Discussion ・Experiments reveal "accuracy" and "quickness" as factors that can win a game. ・There were some color combinations that had a low rate of correct answers in the experimental results or a slow time to determine the Target Color. We limited our discussion to a correct response rate of 0.7 or higher and a response time of 6 seconds or less.

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Discussion pair-1 pair-2 pair-5 pair-6 pair-11 pair-12 pair-13 pair-14 pair-15 pair-16 pair-20 pair-26 pair-27 Target Unfiltered Basic Target filtered Basic Correct Answer Unfiltered Rate Filtered 0.99 0.98 0.88 0.88 1.00 0.96 0.83 0.82 0.93 0.97 0.84 0.98 0.97 0.95 1.00 0.95 0.94 0.98 0.95 0.94 0.83 0.97 0.99 0.79 0.75 0.84 Unfiltered 1.35 1.42 2.97 2.62 1.82 2.36 3.30 3.56 1.94 1.76 4.78 1.93 2.80 Filtered 1.59 1.68 2.13 1.85 1.71 2.21 2.90 3.83 2.01 1.54 4.57 5.03 5.33 Average Response Time This table extracts the color combinations that fit the previous condition. There were 13 color combinations that fit the condition.

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Discussion 7 Average Response Time (sec) Average Response Time (sec) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 pair-1 pair-2 pair-14 pair-15 pair-19 pair-26 Color Combination (pair number) Filtered Unfiltered Color combinations with shorter response times in the unfilter condition pair-27 pair-4 pair-5 pair-11 pair-12 pair-13 pair-16 pair-20 Color Combination (pair number) Filtered Unfiltered Color combinations with shorter response times in the filter condition

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Discussion 7 Average Response Time (sec) Average Response Time (sec) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 pair-1 pair-2 pair-14 pair-15 pair-19 pair-26 Color Combination (pair number) Filtered pair-27 Unfiltered Color combinations with shorter response times in If thewe unfilter wantcondition to eliminate pair-4 pair-5 pair-11 pair-12 pair-13 pair-16 pair-20 Color Combination (pair number) Filtered Unfiltered Color combinations with shorter response times in the filter condition the color handicap, color combinations with the same response time are suitable.

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Discussion 7 Average Response Time (sec) Average Response Time (sec) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 pair-1 pair-2 pair-14 pair-15 pair-19 pair-26 Color Combination (pair number) Filtered pair-27 Unfiltered Color combinations with shorter response times in the unfilter condition Many color pair-4 pair-5 pair-11 pair-12 pair-13 pair-16 pair-20 Color Combination (pair number) Filtered Unfiltered Color combinations with shorter responsewith times in the filter condition combinations different response times may be uncomfortable to play the game.

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Discussion pair-1 pair-2 pair-5 pair-6 pair-11 pair-12 pair-13 pair-14 pair-15 pair-16 pair-20 pair-26 pair-27 Unfiltered Target Basic filtered Target Basic Correct Answer Unfiltered Rate Filtered 0.99 0.98 0.88 0.88 1.00 0.96 0.83 0.82 0.93 0.97 0.84 0.98 0.97 0.95 1.00 0.95 0.94 0.98 0.95 0.94 0.83 0.97 0.99 0.79 0.75 0.84 Unfiltered 1.35 1.42 2.97 2.62 1.82 2.36 3.30 3.56 1.94 1.76 4.78 1.93 2.80 Filtered 1.59 1.68 2.13 1.85 1.71 2.21 2.90 3.83 2.01 1.54 4.57 5.03 5.33 Average Response Time These colors are easy to distinguish for the general and Deuteranope.

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Discussion Color combinations that are easy to distinguish for both General advantage Color combination Deuteranope advantage Unfiltered pair-C pair-D pair11 pair15 pair26 pair27 General disadvantage pair5 pair6 Target Basic Filtered Target Basic Color combination Deuteranope disadvantage Unfiltered Target Basic Filtered Target Basic pair19

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Discussion Color combinations that are easy to distinguish for both General advantage Both are easy to see. Color combination Deuteranope advantage Unfiltered pair-C pair-D pair11 pair15 pair26 pair27 General disadvantage pair5 pair6 Target Basic Filtered Target Basic Color combination Hard to distinguish colorsTarget Unfiltered Deuteranope disadvantage Basic Filtered pair19 Easy to identify colors Target Basic These colors are affected by differences in saturation and lightness.

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Discussion ・Examine colors that are easy to distinguish in color vision types other than Deuteranope. ・Conduct the same experiment with color vision diversity. ・To conduct the same experiment with different background colors. ・Examine whether it is possible to control the advantage or disadvantage in games using easily distinguishable colors.

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Summary Purpose To investigate color as an indicator to control the advantage and disadvantage of color vision. Experiment To accurately and quickly select different colors among multiple choices. Discussion The combination of different values of saturation and lightness is suitable as a color for easy discrimination. Future Plan Investigation of the possibility of advantage/disadvantage control using easy-to-discriminate colors.