【Unite Tokyo 2019】Unityプログレッシブライトマッパー2019

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September 25, 19

スライド概要

2019/9/25-6に開催されたUnite Tokyo 2019の講演スライドです。
SangYun Yi(Unity Technologies Korea)

こんな人におすすめ
・3D背景アーティスト
・テクニカルアーティスト
・ライティングアーティスト

受講者が得られる知見
・プログレッシブライトマッパーの基本的な使い方
・各プラットフォームごとのLWRP、HDRPでのプログレッシブライトマッパーの効果的な使い方
・プログレッシブライトマッパーの各オプションの機能

Unityのイベント資料はこちらから:
https://www.slideshare.net/UnityTechnologiesJapan/clipboards

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リアルタイム3Dコンテンツを制作・運用するための世界的にリードするプラットフォームである「Unity」の日本国内における販売、サポート、コミュニティ活動、研究開発、教育支援を行っています。ゲーム開発者からアーティスト、建築家、自動車デザイナー、映画製作者など、さまざまなクリエイターがUnityを使い想像力を発揮しています。

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関連スライド

各ページのテキスト
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Unityプログレッシブライトマッパー Unity Progressive Lightmapper フィールドに光を着せる Unity Technologies Korea Technical Artist/Evangelist SangYun Yi

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SangYun Yi Unity Technologies Korea Technical Artst/Evangelist https://illu.tistory.com [email protected] 15 Build on game environment art for mobile platform using the Light probes 16 Rooms2 mobile to VR 17 Implement quality unity shader on mobile hardware 18 Unity Pregressive Lightampper(2H) 19 Surface Shader for Artist(Training 4H)

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Lighting..?

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Lighting in game or 3D Contents • make users aware of the game design • Describe and direct the game environment with Mood and Tone. • Description of the shape and material of objects placed in a scene. • Depth Representation.

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Abbaye du Thoronet Le Mont-Saint-Michel

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Jongmyo Shrine Gyeongbokgung Chosun dynasty palace in Seoul Piazza San Pietro Colonnade

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Why using Lightmapping? • Performance : low device(AR, VR do not using real time GI) • Quality : Realtim GI does not perfect implement G.I • More clearly reflected indirect light.

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Vertex Color Lighting • A simple solution for how to express light with vertex color. • The number of vertices should be sufficient and the expression is limited because according to direction of edge. • A good way to assist in situations where lightmap textures are limited

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Lightmapping Lightmap UV Lightmap texture result

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Work process Budget check Asset Lighting plan 3D props work concept Platform dependencies game, animation, industries pc, mobile, console..etc Lighting (theme mood.. Etc) Main lighting (direction, color) Terrain or mesh Memory, hardware spec Lightmap method Level design (baked indirect, shadowmask… etc) Camera Technical plan Sub lighting (LOD, Post Processing..etc) (ambient color, sub light.. etc) Rough & check Main bake Modifed and Polishing Texel size test Sub option activation Maximized option value Artifact check Add Detail lighting running test on target platform (most option set the lowest value) Main scene mood Level design

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Unity Progressive Lightmapper

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Unity Lightmapping system change history Unity 5.6(Preview) Unity 5.X(deprecated) Unity 3.X, 4.X Unity 2018.3(Preview)

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Lighting: Technical information and terminology Emitted Light : This is light that is emitted directly onto Camera the surface of the Scene. Light Direct Light : This is light that is emitted, hits the surface of the Scene and is then reflected into a sensor (for example, the eye’s retina or a camera). A Light’s direct object contribution is any direct light that arrives at a sensor from that Light. object Emissive object Indirect Light : This is light that is emitted, hits the surface of the Scene at least two times and is ultimately reflected into a sensor. A Light’s indirect contribution is any indirect light that arrives at a sensor from that Light. https://docs.unity3d.com/Manual/LightModes-TechnicalInformation.html

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Lighting options

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Mixed Lighting Mixed Lights are Light components which have their Mode property set to Mixed. Lighting >> Mixed Lighting menu Light >> Mode set the mode Mixed mode Legacy LWRP(ULRP) HDRP Subtractive Supported Supported X Baked Indirect Supported Supported Supported Shadowmask supported X(2019.3 will be released) Supported

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Subtractive Traditional lightmapping method. All the lighting information baked on texture (Direct, indirect lights) Discards the information that Unity uses to composite dynamic and static shadows in other Mixed lighting modes. Do not show specular or glossy highlights. Subtractive mode: All light paths are precomputed.

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Mixed baked(subtractive) Non mixed baked(subtractive) Shadow can casting and light does not effected to Shadow does not casting and light does not static object(dynamic object be effected). Also drawcall working in the scene. But if add light it can work increase for shadow casting(directional and point light) in the scene but draw call increase.

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Subtractive mode therefore has a realtime shadow color field. Unity uses this color in the shader. Shadow transparent controlled by ‘realtme shadows strength’ option in (main)directional light. (It does not working on real time lighting only)

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Advantage • It provides high-quality shadows between static GameObjects in lightmaps at no additional performance requirement. • One Texture operation in the Shader handles all lighting and shadows between static GameObjects. • It provides indirect lighting. Disadvantage • It does not provide real-time direct lighting, and therefore does not provide specular lighting. • It does not provide dynamic shadows on static GameObjects, except for one Directional Light (the main Light). • It only provides low-resolution shadows from static GameObjects onto dynamic GameObjects, via Light Probes. • It provides inaccurate composition of dynamic and static shadows.(compared to no lightmaps)

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LWRP(6.9.0) LWRP(6.9.0) LWRP(6.9.0) (direction light x 1, point light x 4) Real time point light x 20 Baked point light x 20 LWRP limitet max 4 light per object, but bake lightmap does not effected it

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Legacy point light real time Legacy point light baked LWRP(6.9.0) LWRP(6.9.0) (soft and hard shadow) (soft and hard shadow) point light soft shadow point light hard shadow In LWRP point light does not supported real time shadow but shadow attenuation change to Physically Based Light Attenuation. Light intensity decreases by the inverse-square law.

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Legacy spot light Legacy spot light LWRP(6.9.0) LWRP(6.9.0) (soft & hard shadow) (soft shadow) (soft & hard shadow) (soft shadow) Baked shadow Radius : 0 Baked shadow Radius : 2 Baked shadow Radius : 0 Baked shadow Radius : 2

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Legacy spot light Legacy spot light LWRP spot light LWRP spot light Indirect multiplier : 1 Indirect multiplier : 50 Indirect multiplier : 1 Indirect multiplier : 50 Indirect multiplier : control the indirect lighting intensity

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Baked Indirect For Lights that are set to Baked Indirect mode, Unity only precomputes indirect lighting, and does not carry out shadow pre-computations.(Shadow are fully real-time withing the shadow distance) The performance requirements of Baked Indirect mode make it a good option for building to midrange PC’s and high-end mobile devices. Default rendering budget + baked indirect lightmap textures Baked Indirect mode: Only indirect lighting is precomputed

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Realtime lighting Baked in direct + Realtime lighting Baked in direct + Realtime lighting (direction light x 1, point light x 4) (direction light x 1, point light x 4) (direction light x 1) Batches : 30, Saved by batch : 9 Batches : 30, Saved by batch : 9 Batches : 8, Saved by batch : 3 Baked in direct Batches : 3, Saved by batch : 1

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Compare Baked indirect and SSAO(Screen Space Ambient Occlusion) Baked in direct + Realtime lighting Realtime light + SSAO (direction light x 1) (direction light x 1) Batches : 8, Saved by batch : 3, SetPassCall : 6 Batches : 16, Saved by batch : 3, SetPassCall : 13

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HDRP Baked indirect Baked indirect Lit shader HDRP ambient color is affected from Static Lighting Sky in scene settings.

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HDRP Baked Indirect HDRP Baked Indirect HDRP Baked Indirect GPU Progressive lightmapper GPU Progressive lightmapper CPU Progressive lightmapper Direct Samples : 32, Indirect Samples : 50 Direct Samples : 32, Indirect Samples : 500 Direct Samples : 32, Indirect Samples : 50 Environment Samples : 50, filter : Auto Environment Samples : 100, filter : Auto Environment Samples : 50, filter : Auto

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HDRP Baked Indirect(GPU) HDRP Baked Indirect(GPU) Legacy Baked Indirect Direct Samples : 32, Indirect Samples : 50 Direct Samples : 32, Indirect Samples : 500 Direct Samples : 32, Indirect Samples : 50 Environment Samples : 50, filter : Auto Environment Samples : 100, filter : Auto Environment Samples : 50, filter : Auto

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Advantage • It provides the same visual effect as Realtime Lighting. • It provides indirect lighting. Disadvantage • It has higher performance requirements relative to other Mixed Light modes, because it renders shadowcasting static GameObjects into shadow maps. • Shadows do not render beyond the Shadow Distance.

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Shadowmask Precomputes shadows cast from static static GameObjects. Project Settings >> Quality >> shadowmask mode Shadowmask and Distance Shadowmask modes: Indirect lighting and direct occlusion are precomputed select Shadowmask, Distance Shadowmask

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Lightmap texture Lightmap texture Shadowmask texture Realtime, Baked Indirect Shadowmask (direction light x 1, point light x 4) (direction light x 1, point light x 4) Batches : 35, Saved by batch : 9, SetPassCall : 32 Batches : 16, Saved by batch : 1, SetPassCall : 15

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Shadowmask texture sepearted each RGBA channel Precomputes shadows cast from static static GameObjects. if light over 4 count overlapping in per pixel , lightmapper bake the light into the lightmap texture. Light Probes also receive the same information for up to 4 lights.

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Compare shadowmask and Distance shadowmask, Baked Indirect Shadowmask Distance Shadowmask Baked Indirect (mixed direction light x 1) (mixed direction light x 1) (mixed direction light x 1) Batches : 259, Saveb by batch : 16, SetPassCall : 182 Batches : 456, Saveb by batch : 129, SetPassCall : 211 Batches : 508, Saveb by batch : 167, SetPassCall : 211

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Shadow Quality Realtime lighting Baked shadow texture to lightmap

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Shadow distance applied distance shadowmask mode set a short shadow distance, see a border where the shadow texture and realtime shadow change as shown in the image above.

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Advantage • It offers the same visual effect as Realtime Lighting. • It provides real-time shadows from dynamic GameObjects onto static GameObjects. • One Texture operation in the Shader handles all lighting and shadows between static GameObjects. • It automatically composites overlapping shadows from static and dynamic GameObjects. • It has mid-to-low performance requirements, because it does not render static GameObjects into shadow maps. • It provides indirect lighting. Disadvantage • It only provides low-resolution shadows from static GameObjects onto dynamic GameObjects, via Light Probes. • It only allows up to 4 overlapping light . • It has increased memory requirements for the light map Texture / Shadow mask texture.

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Lightmapping Settings Lightmapper : CPU, GPU progressive lightmapper select Prioritize view : Specifies whether the lightmapper should prioritize baking texels within the scene view. When Disabled, objects outside the scene view will have the same priority as those in the scene view. Multiple Importance Sampling : Enable this to use multiple importance sampling for sampling the environment. This generally leads to faster convergence when generating lightmaps, but can lead to noisier results in certain low frequency environments. This is disabled by default

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Prioritize view disable Prioritize view enable

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Direct Light(Local illumination) Direct Samples : Number of rays shot towards light sources Indirect Samples : Number of paths shot in the upper hemisphere Bounces : Number of times a ray is allowed to bounce of another surface Bounces Indirect Light(Global illumination)

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Local illumination Global illumination

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Direct samples : 1 Direct samples : 1 Indirect Samples : 8 Indirect Samples : 500 Bounces : 1 Bounces : 1 Direct samples : 1 Indirect Samples : 500 Bounces : 4 Direct samples : 1 Indirect Samples : 500 Bounces : 4 + Point light indirect multiplier : 10

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GPU Progressive lightmapper CPU Progressive lightmapper

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Filter : None Filter : Advanced Filter : Advanced Denosiser : Open ImageDenoise, optix Denosiser : Open ImageDenoise Direct / Indirect / AO Filter : None Direct / Indirect / AO Filter : Gaussian GPU Progressive Lightmapper support only Gaussian filtering mode.

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Direct samples : 16 Direct samples : 16 Indirect Samples : 100 Indirect Samples : 100 Environment Samples : 100 Environment Samples : 100 Bounces : 1 Bounces : 1 Multiple Importance sampling : Disable / Enable Multiple Importance sampling : Disable / Enable Skybox cubemap : 32x32 Skybox cubemap : 1024x1024

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Intel Open Image Denoise : https://openimagedenoise.github.io/ Nvidia Optix AI-Accelerated Denoiser : https://developer.nvidia.com/optix-denoiser/

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Lightmap Resoultion Sets the resolution in texels that are used per unit for objects being lit by baked global illumination. Larger value will result in increased time to calculate the baked lighting. • Pixels in lightmap • Mapped to units of space • Texel count is proportional to resolution^2 • Each texel spawns: • n direct rays towards k lights • m indirect rays * j bounces • one direct ray per bounce towards K lights • Texels are the amount of work to do texel resolution could checked in the scene windows submenu “baked Lightmap”

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Lightmap Resolution : 1 Lightmap Resolution : 5 Lightmap Resolution : 25.6(reach out maximize texel size in this scene)

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Scale in Lightmap Lightmap texture can controlled by each object scale in lightmap. If your UVs are split into multiple chart, it's best not to reduce them when the lightmap texture resolution is not sufficient. Ensure that you use fewer non-important objects in your level design(in Camera view). Objects that use lightmaps large enough can be adjusted accordingly.

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Stitch seams lightmap seam stitching is a technique that smooths unwanted hard edges in GameObjects seam line appeared on mesh when texel size to too small. https://docs.unity3d.com/Manual/Lightmapping-SeamStitching.html

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Ambient Occlusion Ambient Occlusion : disable Max distance : 1 Max distance : 10

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Ambient Color Environment Lighting : These settings affect light coming from the distant environment. ambient light is light that is present all around the Scene and doesn’t come from any specific source object. Use this to define a source color. Intensity Multiplier : brightness of the diffuse environmental light in the Scene, defined as a value between 0 and 8. The default value is 1

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Environment Lighting : Color Environment Lighting : Color Environment Lighting : Skybox Environment Lighting : Gradient How ambient color effect to scene’s mood and tone. LowPoly environment Pack https://assetstore.unity.com/packages/3d/environments/landscapes/lowpoly-environment-pack-99479

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Statics The panel the Auto Generate and Generate Lighting options shows statistics about the lightmapping. Occupied Texel : The number of texels that are occupied in lightmap UV space. Bake Performance: The number of rays per second. If this is low (that is, less than 2) you should adjust your settings or your hardware to process more light rays at a time.

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GPU based Progressive Lightmapper

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GPU Progressive Lightmapper The GPU version an order of magnitude faster than the CPU version RadeonRays: an open source ray tracing library from AMD Unity and AMD have collaborated on the GPU Lightmapper to implement several key features : power sampling, rays compaction, and custom BVH(Bounding volume hierarchy) traversal. • Unbiased interactive lightmapping • Feature parity between CPU and GPU backends • Compute based solution • Wavefront path tracing for maximum performance https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bounding_volume_hierarchy https://gpuopen.com/gaming-product/radeon-rays

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Requirements and Limitations To use the Progressive GPU Lightmapper, your computer must have: • At least one GPU with OpenCL 1.2 support(RadeonRays based on OpenCL 1.2) - Geforce 600 Series(Kepler), AMD HD5000 Series(Evergreen) • At least 2GB of dedicated GPU memory • A CPU that supports SSE4.1 instructions(at least Intel Penryn, AMD Bulldozer.. Etc) - Recommended AMD graphics driver: 18.9.3. / Nvidia graphics driver: 416.34. The Progressive GPU Lightmapper does not support: • Baked LOD • A-Trous filtering (it only uses Gaussian filtering) • The custom bake API (experimental) • Submeshes (the lightmapper uses Material properties on the first submesh)

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Progressive bake : about 2min 10sec Progressive GPU bake : about 20sec Sponza 63 Refection Probes GPU : Nvidia GTX 1080 Direct Sample : 24 / Indirect Sample : 50 The goal of the GPU lightmapper is to provide the same feature set as the CPU progressive lightmapper, with higher performance.

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LOD Mesh Bake Lightmap LOD0 : 3001 tris LOD1 : 2293 tris Scene Settings

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LOD mesh baked CPU Progressive Lightmap Baking time at least 10 min, CPU processor usage 99% during bake

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LOD mesh baked GPU Progressive Lightmap Baking time at least 30 sec, GPU Processor usage 99% during bake

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LOD mesh using Light Probes Baked lightmap no lightmap / no light no lightmap / light probes no lightmap / light probes LOD0 probes LOD1 proxy volume LOD1 LOD1

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Actual scale compare in scene no lightmap / light probes no lightmap / light probes no lightmap / light probes proxy volume proxy volume proxy volume + vertex color LOD1 LOD1 LOD1 3DS MAX view port

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Projection LOD lightmapping • Marking only LOD0 in an LOD Group as lightmap static • Only renderers in LOD0 get lightmap texels • Lower LODs reuse those texels • UVs need to match between LOD levels • Same UV island outline, simpler topology inside • Bakes are fast again • All renderers processed in one go • Raytracer’s acceleration structure is static https://www.slideshare.net/unity3d/progressive-lightmapper-an-introduction-to-lightmapping-in-unity

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Applied Batching Static Batches : 2, Saved by batching : 3 Batches : 4, Saved by batching : 1 Batches : 3, Saved by batching : 2 LOD1 using lightProbes LOD1 mesh separated batching statics (if LOD1 do not use light probes it be a Objects using same material(Legacy Standard) Checked Contribute Static(for lightmaps) and same lightmap texture index Subtractive bake mode(non realtime lighting) static batching)

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LOD Group Scale in lightmap set the lightmap scale to match the LOD percentages. LOD0 mesh scale in lightmap LOD1 mesh scale in lightmap

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Submeshes bake 2 submeshes 5 submeshes

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Defense Technica(steam, PS3, XBOX360) 2013 Use several submeshes

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Transparent(Legacy Render Pipeline) Standard(Fade) Standard(Transparent) Standard(Cutout) Realtime lighting Transparent object can bake shadow only directional light.(Mixed Subtractive, baked)

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Transparent(HDRP) Lit(Transparent-AlphaClipping) Lit(Opaque-AlphaClipping) Lit(Transparent-alpha) Realtime Lit(Transparent-AlphaClipping) Lit(Opaque-AlphaClipping) Lit(Transparent-alpha) Baked

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Lit(Transparent-AlphaClipping) Lit(Opaque-AlphaClipping) Lit(Transparent-alpha) Shadowmask Lit(Transparent-AlphaClipping) Lit(Opaque-AlphaClipping) Lit(Transparent-alpha) Baked- point, spot lights (not include directional lighting)

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Transparent(LWRP) Lit(Transparent-AlphaClipping) Lit(Opaque-AlphaClipping) Lit(Transparent-alpha) Realtime Lit(Transparent-AlphaClipping) Lit(Opaque-AlphaClipping) Lit(Transparent-alpha) Baked, Mixed subtractive (CPU, GPU) Same Lightmapper option HDRP

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Lit(Transparent-AlphaClipping) Lit(Opaque-AlphaClipping) Lit(Transparent-alpha) Subtractive support point, spot light shadow

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Others..

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Mesh UV If mesh does not has lightmap uv(uv2), lightmapper bake to 1st UV again.

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Mesh Lightmap UV Utilities >> channel info >> 3DS MAX can check uv information UV Editor >> UV Sets >> Current UV set Select 2nd UV Unwrap UVW >> Channel >> Map Channel >> Select 2nd Maya 2018 UV 3DS Max 2018

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Unwrap UV Modify >> Layout Arrange Elements Maya 2018 3DS Max 2018

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Generate Lightmap UVs Unity can unwrap uv : Model option >> Generate Lightmap UVs default UV(unwrap in 3DS MAX) Hard Angle : 88(default) Hard Angle : 178 if object shape close to cylinder, it’s better to work in DCC Tools and don't divide uv seam line. Pack Margin : 16

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Pro Builder Probuilder Generate UVs : Probuilder Object >> Probuilderize menu support check the UV visualized in editor. Hard Angle : 178

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This is a same function in model option.

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Visualising baked UVs Lightmap uv check in baked lightmap texture. Mesh component Lightmapping >> Open Preview

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Camera 3 2 1 1 2 3 2 3 2 1 Object scale in lightmap depend on object scale in scene 1 3 If object has a extra uv space, the lightmapper fills that spaces.

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Things to keep in mind • 2019.2 and older releases will have sampling and noise patterns slightly different than what is produced by the CPU lightmapper as the sampling algorithm used is different. 2019.3 and newer is using the same sampling algorithm as the CPU lightmapper. • If the baking process uses more than the available GPU memory the baking can fall back to the CPU lightmapper. Some drivers with virtual memory support will start swapping to CPU memory instead, making the bake much slower. • GPU memory usage is very high in the preview version but we are optimizing this. In 2018.3 you need more than 12GB of GPU memory if you want to bake a 4K lightmap. https://forum.unity.com/threads/gpu-lightmapper-preview.561103/

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Will be update features • GPU lightmapper : Reduced memory usage when baking. • Submesh support(2019.3.0a3) • Match CPU lightmapper sampling algorithm (2019.3.0a8) • AMD Radeon Pro Image Filters AI denoiser added. Currently Windows and AMD hardware only (2019.3.0a10). • Added support for baking box and pyramid shapes for SRP spotlights(2019.3.0a10). Features added in 2020.1 (will not be backported) • GPU backend can now export AOVs to train ML code for de-noising lightmaps. Only available in developer mode(2020.1.0a1). • Compressed transparency textures; 75% memory reduction by using rgba32 instead of floats (2020.1.0a2). • GPU lightmapper can now write out the filtered AO texture to disk, alongside the Lighting Data Asset. Only available in On Demand mode. Only available through experimental API(2020.1.0a3).

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Lightmaps : Technical Information The Decode Lightmap shader function from the UnityCG.cginc shader include file handles the decoding of lightmap values after the value is read from the lightmap texture in a shader. encoding schemes and their texture compression formats per target platform If the target is Android then you can override the default texture compression format from the Build Settings to one of the following formats: DXT1, PVRTC, ETC2, ASTC. The default format is ETC for RGB textures and ETC2 for RGBA textures. https://docs.unity3d.com/Manual/Lightmaps-TechnicalInformation.html

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Thank you! Reference Bounding Volume Hierarchy : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bounding_volume_hierarchy RadeonRays : https://gpuopen.com/gaming-product/radeon-rays GPU Lightmapper: A Technical Deep Dive : https://blogs.unity3d.com/2019/05/20/gpu-lightmapper-a-technical-deep-dive/ SSE4 processor list : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SSE4 Progressive Lightmapper : An introduction to Lightmapping in Unity : https://www.slideshare.net/unity3d/progressive-lightmapper-an-introduction-to-lightmapping-in-unity Unity Progressive Lightmapper Unity forum : https://forum.unity.com/threads/gpu-lightmapper-preview.561103/ Lightmaps : Technical information : https://docs.unity3d.com/Manual/Lightmaps-TechnicalInformation.html Unity3D ShaderLab, DecodeLightmap : https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/35096536 Q&A [email protected]